Session 1 – Why Open Science concerns us all!
Erlend Dancke Sandorf (SiN, Association of Doctoral Organizations in Norway)
1) Why True Science is Only Open Science (Presentation)
Dr. Pandelis Perakakis
Mind, Brain and Behaviour Research Centre (CIMCYC), University of Granada; Co-founder of Open Scholar http://www.openscholar.org.uk/
In this talk, I will attempt to go back to the origins of science to remember how scientific thought emerged and which was its initial purpose. I will contrast this idealistic view of science with today's reality and argue that if we are still interested in honest scientific enquiry there is no better option than to open science and to take full advantage of modern communication technologies. I will discuss the main challenges and obstacles the open science movement is facing and present existing alternatives models for sharing and reusing scientific data and discoveries. Hopefully, I will manage to transmit my optimism for the future of science once the research community regains control of its own product by exploiting the already available open science infrastructure.
2) Why does Open Science concern us all?
Head of Unit 'Open Science and ERA Policy', DG Research and Innovation, European Commission
In the context of the Commission's priorities on Open Science, Open Innovation and Open to the World, the presentation will focus on Open Science and its impact on research systems. It will provide an overview of the European Open Science policy agenda and describe ambitions for the future, involving all actors concerned. It will also give an insight into the initiatives that are undertaken at European level to support this policy agenda and how they might need to evolve, notably in relation to researchers careers.
Session 2 – Obstacles to Open Science and how they can be overcome
Katharina Müller (The Interdisciplinary Network for PhD Candidates and Early Stage Researchers in Germany (THESIS))
1) Lithuanian Young Researchers and Open Science: Perspectives and Scenarios (Presentation)
Lithuanian Society of Young Researchers
The success of research activities is based on the availability of research papers and data. Researcher community is undergoing a transition that changes the way stakeholders interact with each other. The role of young researchers in this process is rather troublesome. To become relevant young researchers will have to both use and produce open science. In this presentation Aidis Stukas will present opinions of Lithuanian young researcher and present possible development scenarios.
2) Latvian Approach to Open Science (Presentation)
Association of Latvian Young Scientists
Latvia is small and open economy with deeply rooted need of Open science: 99% of all the enterprises are micro or small, employing less than 50 employees. These enterprises don`t have resources for buying data base access or having research department of their own. For us Open science is the only way to foster knowledge society and heighten added value of our enterprises. Therefor our policy is Open science oriented and encourages free availability of knowledge. For example, newly developed National information system of scientific activity will contain not only all the information about researchers, institutes, projects, but also will have publications where it is not prohibited with intellectual rights. In Latvia MOOC courses are very popular in the study process and they are used to popularize research results. Many researchers in Latvia publish their papers in Open Access journals and deposit their papers in subject repositories because they recognize that their studies will be accessible to a larger audience than by publishing in conventional journals. Scientists from Latvia are publishing individually in subject repositories such as PubMed Central, ArXiv, Cogprints etc. and in Open Access journals. The publications can be accessed through DOAJ, Open J-Gate, PLoS etc. It is common practice too to publish scientific article and afterwards introduce wider society with the research results by articles in news portals. In meantime there are new solutions developed how to widen the concept of Open Science. It is not enough just to provide access to the information. There is acute need to inform the society about research and research results. Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences has shown an innovative approach in this area by publishing actual content research results in three languages and as extra preparing five short popular science articles in simpler language and using visualisation in which the essence of the research was explained. As result the research got wide resonance in the society, researchers were interviewed in various media (TV, radio, news portals) both in Latvia and abroad. By this was gained not only publishing of the results of scientific research, but also involvement of the society.
3) Open Science from the Perspective of Early-Career Researchers
PhD candidates Network of the Netherlands (PNN)
Open Science aims to make scientific research accessible to all levels of society and to engage society in determining the topics researchers should address. Open Science plays a central role in the European Commission's plans for developing research and innovation in Europe, and constitutes one of the Three O's in the New Vision for Europe, together with Open Innovation and Open to the World. Such policy for researchers is, however, often decided at higher levels of university administration and government. Eurodoc is currently working together with the Working Group on Education & Skills under Open Science at the European Commission to provide input from the viewpoint of early-career researchers on how they feel about Open Science and the skills and facilities they need to practice Open Science. To achieve this, we have conducted a survey aimed at early-stage researchers across Europe on the topics of Open Data, Open Access, and Intersectoral Mobility. We will discuss the results of this survey in our presentation and the consequences of Open Science on the training and development of early-career researchers in Europe.
4) The European Research Area and Open Science between European vision and institutional reality (Presentation)
Prof. Jan Palmowski
Secretary General of The Guild
This presentation examines how Open Science affects the drive of the Commission, and of EU member states, towards a European Research Area that aspires to the freedom of movement for researchers and ideas. It identifies some of the key obstacles in the realisation of Open Science from the perspective of EU policy-makers; and it looks at how these relate to the institutional priorities on Open Science at of some of Europe’s leading universities, taking the example of the Guild’s member universities.
Session 3 – What steps can government and university leaders take to promote Open Science?
Jon Magnus Aronsen (The Young Academy of Norway)
- Katrien Maes
Chief policy officer LERU (League of European Research Universities)
- Alexander Jensenius
The Young Academy of Norway
- Maja Mise
Marie Curie Alumni Association (MCAA)
- Fabienne Gautier
Head of Unit 'ERA policy and reform', DG Research and Innovation, European Commission
- Ole Petter Ottersen
Rector of University of Oslo; Chair, The Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities
Session 4 – Academic publishing - Time for a paradigmatic shift?
Filomena Parada (Portuguese Association of grant-holding researchers (ABIC))
1) A paradigmatic shift in Open Access publishing models? (Presentation)
Head of Research Affairs, Science Europe
The presentation will provide an overview on some of the recent trends and developments, as well as various business models currently in use which aim to facilitate the transition to OA. It will also touch on the evolution of the provision of publishing services, and highlight expected benefits as well as underline remaining challenges.
2) Towards a new and fair copyright and TDM framework in the EU! (Presentation)
Chief policy officer LERU (League of European Research Universities)
LERU is a strong proponent of Open Science (OS), and all it entails: open access publication of research output, access to research data and proper data management, building and connecting necessary OS infrastructures, as well as other aspects identified as action points in the European Commission’s OS strategy, such as research integrity and citizen science. My talk in the session on academic publishing will focus on the issue of copyright and text and data mining (TDM). TDM is the “process of deriving information from machine-read material. It works by copying large quantities of material, extracting the data, and recombining it to identify patterns” (JISC). It has become an important tool for many researchers to work on vast amounts of data and publications; it is essential for better knowledge creation and sharing.
LERU sees copyright and TDM as crucial elements to complement and support a pan-European move to OS. In September 2016, the European Commission presented its legislative proposal to update the current EU framework on copyright, which, dating back to legal texts such as the 1996 Database Directive and the 2001 InfoSoc Directive, is obsolete. There is a legal vacuum on whether the mining of copyrighted material is allowed. It is a very good thing for research that the EC has included in the proposed Directive a much needed EU-level mandatory exception for TDM, freeing it from certain copyright obligations. LERU and others have taken the view that “the right to read is the right to mine”, so that anyone with legal access to content should be able to mine it without additional barriers. LERU wants the exception to be even stronger and wider than in the current proposal. A mandatory TDM exception is one of the key components of a meaningful copyright reform. It is vital that an EU-level framework is agreed so researchers do not have to worry about complying with a myriad of national or other regulations.
The EC’s proposal also offers better transparency and remuneration obligations for researchers’ copyright entitlements. This is much needed to help tip the balance towards a more equitable situation for research, given the excessive amount of profit that publishers have been making from scholarly research for a long time. The legislative process is now in full swing in the European Parliament, and LERU is actively involved to make sure that the new Directive is favourable for research and for OS.
3) Open Access from the perspective of a research funder
Jon Øygarden Flæten
Norwegian Research Council
Session 5 – What we can learn from the Early Career Researcher’s community
Gareth O’Neill (PhD candidates Network of the Netherlands (PNN))
1) March for Science (Presentation)
We are living through very puzzling times. Times where the unexpected, the counter-intuitive and the irrational make headlines. One example stands out in the wake of Brexit, as we face the possibility that nations of the European Union should follow the same route! We, as citizens, may be subjected to models of governance edging towards nationalism and authoritarianism principles. In this scenario, political power is built on a populist strategy integrating alternative facts and fake news as the new norm. In such an increasingly polarised world, the abundance of intellectual dishonesty and denialism contribute to the establishment of a post-truth society. This is particularly concerning in relation to issues of scientific relevance, such as climate change, health policy or the origin of our universe.
2) Innovative PhD Training within an MSCA European Training Network (Presentation)
Charlotte Teresa Weber (co-authors Melania Borit und Michaela Aschan)
Tromsø Doctoral Students (TODOS), Norway
We will present the innovative doctoral training model implemented through the European Training Network SAF21 - Social Science Aspects of Fisheries for the 21st Century, an EU funded Marie Skłodowska-Curie project (number 642080). The SAF21 training program has a special focus on training Early Stage Researchers (ESR) both in academic and transferable skills that will increase their rate of successful international, intersectoral and interdisciplinary mobility and, consequently, enhance their employability. The SAF21 doctoral training model has four pillars. All ESRs follow a Personal Career Development Plan (PCDP) whose aim is to identify career development objectives, map skills and competences and plan activities for reaching the career objectives. The PCDP integrates within-network and outside-network training to create effective and individually tailored training paths. Developing PCDPs additionally facilitates self-reflection as well as practicing core competencies such as personal effectiveness, research governance, career management and research impact. Through the mechanism of secondments (i.e. internships integrated in the doctoral training program), the SAF21 ESRs are exposed to three different work sectors relevant for their knowledge, training, skills and competences. A third pillar is mandatory training in a core group of transferable skills, relevant for a broad job market. Special training in inter-cultural communication sets the basis for successful international mobility. The fourth pillar is training and practice in science communication using a wide variety of platforms (e.g. Facebook, personal blog).The ESRs are integrated in an extensive network of academic and non-academic institutions through organized network meetings, workshops and training camps under the coordination of the SAF21 project.
3) Securing decent work for ECRs: Why the Human Resources Strategy for Researchers (HRS4R) is a good but not sufficient policy (Presentation)
Filomena Parada & Anna Tschaut
Portuguese Association of grant-holding researchers (ABIC)/ The Interdisciplinary Network for PhD Candidates and Early Stage Researchers in Germany (THESIS)
In 2005, the European Commission (EC) adopted the European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers (C&C). By adopting the C&C, the EC aimed at contributing to the development of an attractive, open and sustainable European labour market for researchers capable of promoting working environments supportive of the development and career prospects of all researchers regardless of their contractual situation and of the chosen R&D career path. The C&C was addressed to researchers as well as research employers and funders in both the public and private sectors, and to date 857 organisations across Europe endorsed its principles.
However, organisations endorsing the C&C were not required to implement its principles. It sufficed to state they were supportive of the recommendations in the C&C. To overcome this unsatisfactory situation, in 2015, the EC launched a new policy, the Human Resources Strategy for Researchers (HRS4R), which aimed at supporting research institutions and funding organisations in the implementation of the C&C in their policies and practices. To date, 297 organisations received the HR excellence in research award, which intends to publicly recognise the progress made by institutions in aligning their human resource strategies with the principles set out in the C&C.
However, according to multiple sources of information, including Eurodoc own internal data, ECRs are so far understood as a source of cheap labour and they easily become the object of opportunistic behaviours by supervisors and host institutions. In addition, no one seems to be taking responsibility or being accountable for the career development of ECRs.
While Eurodoc has been a strong supporter of the C&C (including being involved in the development of its recommendations), even among its member organisations there seems to be some mis- or lack of information regarding the topic. In our presentation we will address the question of what impact a comprehensive European-wide implementation of the HRS4R and of the C&C could have on ECRs working conditions. Specifically, we will review what has been achieved so far and what is still lacking, including some data on the current status of the C&C and HRS4R implementation. We will also make clear how the implementation of the C&C recommendations could support a structural change in institutions (e.g., universities), and what Eurodoc and its member organisations could do to further support such change.
4) The evolution of doctoral education (Presentation)
Eva Hnatkova & Fulvio Rizzo
Student Chamber of the Council of HEIs, Czech Republic/ The Finnish Union of University Researchers and Teachers (FUURT)
In this presentation, we would like to highlight the competencies and outcomes now expected of those completing a PhD. Due to rapid changes in society, including the development of information and communication technology, the growing production of knowledge in the economy, increasing international competition, technological evolution, as well as changes in the occupational structures and in the contents and organization of work, the doctoral programs have to do much more than preparing doctoral candidates only to the academic field. There are more and more emerging requirements that PhD training should include the development of particular skills that can be transferred from academic to other professional settings, and from one professional setting to another skills that enhance graduates’ employability, their ability to manage their own careers, and their sense of responsibility for making contributions to society.